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Tile and Stone Maintenance

Cleaning Slate – Case Study

 

I have received so many comments on the subject of cleaning slate that I have invited a stone cleaning professional and friend of mine, Andrew Titmuss of Posh Stone Floors to take us through one of his jobs.

Below you can see the job he was faced with, a nice multi-coloured, riven (naturally textured) slate floor which, over time has accumulated a lot of general dirt. The customer brought Andrew in to advise with a view to cleaning and sealing the floor.

Dirty slate floor

Floor before cleaning

Like most professionals, Andrew insisted on a test clean first. So he set about deep cleaning the area around one tile and paid particular attention to the grout joints. This is what he left for the customer to view. The results were so startling that the customer’s initial reaction was that he must have painted the grout joints, however as he explained, they were just ingrained with dirt, and as in so many cases not just dirt, but several years worth of detergent residue that had built up, slowly over time, so the customer did not really notice the gradual decline in appearance.

 

Slate cleaning test

Test area – Joints and tile cleaned

Obviously, he got the job and proceeded to make the rest of the floor look like the test area, below Andrew sets out his standard procedure – a procedure which regular readers of my blog will surely recognize:

  1. Pre wet the floor
  2. Apply Alkaline cleaner with a bit of abrasive cream cleaner.
  3. Leave the cleaner to dwell on the floor making sure it does not dry.
  4. Agitate the floor with a rotary scrubber, scrubber grout joints with a grout brush.
  5. Leave to dwell, then wet vac up  cleaning solution.
  6. Rinse the floor with clean water making sure all the cleaner has been removed.
  7. Check the floor to make sure no bits have been missed.
  8. Leave floor to dry (over night) the apply sealer.

I just want to pick up on and add to a couple of points:

  1. Pre wetting the floor – this partly wets-out the tile and definitely the grout joint, preventing all the detergent from just being absorbed and therefore keeping it at the surface, where it is needed.
  2. Adding a micro-abrasive cream cleaner (such as Microscrub) is an option, that can boost the cleaning power of the alkaline, and help to physically scrub the dirt, especially useful on textured surfaces.
  3. Dwell time is variable but you should look for about 10 to 15 minutes. Keeping it wet in that time by simply adding more cleaning solution. A watch point here is to be careful about all this water when working near water-sensitive surfaces such as kitchen unit end panels (often made from highly absorbent mdf) and adjacent wood floors etc.
  4. points 4 and 5 are self explanatory
  5. Rinsing the floor is so important, yet so often overlooked, or even misunderstood: I still frequently come across people who interpret rinsing, as simply removing the dirty water (point # 5 above) that is Extraction not ‘Rinsing’. Rinsing involves adding new, clean water to the floor, with a clean mop, lightly agitating again then extracting , again. – Don’t overlook this.

It is always a good idea to dry the floor after with an old towel or similar, it helps speed up complete drying, so you can seal the floor if required a little sooner, plus it also helps to remove any remaining traces of detergent residue and dirt and eliminates the formation of water marks (especially important on polished surfaces).

If all this seems a little like hard work – well, that is why professionals like Andrew offer this as a service. Remember though that this is an intensive, periodic deep clean – not a regular weekly wash.

Notice also, that very often it is the grout joints that make a dirty floor look really terrible, more often than not, bring the  grout joints back to a clean condition will make the floor look like new again.

 

 

Copyright Ian Taylor and The Tile and Stone Blog.co.uk, 2013. See copyright notice above.

33 Comments

  1. Is there a product that can be put on the areas where large layers pieces of slate have come off that would make the slate come back to the same color.
    WHen my floor was new and pieces were coming off, a chap came in and the product he used brought the color back but I have not been able to find it since.

    Caro

  2. Ian Taylor

    February 12, 2013 at 3:21 pm

    Hi Carol,

    There are sealers that will permanently darken the slate, if this was what was used before then it will look fine, it should darken the freshly exposed slate layers to somewhere approaching the old.

    You appear to be in Canada, you could try contacting Mapei they have a product that might suite here:

    Hope this helps

    Ian

  3. Wow; this is why I love my job. Just seeing the after picture shows the incredible results that can be achieved. I look forward to reading more.

  4. Hi,

    I am not sure if you can help at all. I have a black slate floor in my bathroom. It seems to have water stains on the tiles, which I cannot remove. Is there a product I can buy to fix this at all?. I am based in London UK, some of the products you have mentioned previously I don’t think you can buy here. But any help would be great. Thanks

  5. Ian Taylor

    May 30, 2013 at 10:26 am

    Hi Laura,

    OK, watermarks are marks left by water, or rather what the water (which if pure would leave no mark) leaves behind – so it can be anything including grease, oil, soap etc.

    However, given a black slate, and the fact you are in London, suggests that it is just hard water deposits, most water has some impurities, from the chemicals introduced by the water companies to the natural minerals that vary from area to area. London is, if I am not mistaken, in a relatively hard water area, meaning that the water in your area has a bit more calcium carbonate in it. This is dissolved in the water and as the water splashes dry, the water evaporates, leaving behind a trace/film of the now recrystallized calcium (can also be traces of soap etc)

    You could try one of two things, wither a gentle abrasive cleaner like Microscrub; this is a calcium based mild abrasive – it acts like an exfoliating cream for stone – won’t damage the stone – this may or may not help but could be worth a try.

    Or, you might try a very mild acid based cleaner, use very dilute and DO NOT get one based on HCL – you could try this company http://www.extensive.co.uk – but I recommend that you call them (they are very helpful, and knowledgeable), and ask for a cleaner based on the safer PHOSPHORIC acid, don’t just order off their web site in case you select the HCL based cleaner by mistake.

    Hope this helps

    Ian

  6. Thank you for your help I will let you know how I get on

  7. Help!
    Used slate oil which was several years old on our fire surround for first time and it is extremely streaky and ruins the appearance. Tried WD 40which helped but it is still very marked . What can be done ?

  8. Ian Taylor

    November 25, 2013 at 10:48 am

    Hi Alan,

    OK, you have just applied a thick oil (old) onto a material that is very dense and won’t take it in very easily. The WD 40 is a thinner oil and may have helped thin it out a little but basically you have got oil residue on the surface, hence the streaks.

    Suggest you use a solvent based stripper to remove it all. An alkaline cleaner may work, but you may find a solvent easier and faster. when stripped, apply a proper sealer designed for slate I(can be an impregnator or a coating depending on the surface of the slate)

    Hope this helps

    Ian

  9. Hi, i have recently had a slate patio laid, over the last few days there had been some white spots appearing, it’s not efflorescence or water marks, it’s more like a dots of pva glue. i have heard of this before, having worked with a range of natural stone products in the past, knowing that slate is a natural stone i’m sure it will weather out given time. the truth is i’m not that patient! does anyone know of any good cleaners??

  10. Ian Taylor

    December 3, 2013 at 8:48 pm

    Hi Dave, the only thing I can think of that is lie pva glue, is pva glue, so unless you happened to spill some I don’t think it is that. It could be natural marks in the slate, only becoming noticeable as it dries out. It could be cement/grout spots.

    The other thing that comes to mind is a sealer reacting to moisture, have you put a sealer on them? If so then many sealers can react like this if they become exposed to moisture during the time it takes them to cure or set. (some older/cheaper sealers can still do this even after they have set.

    Try a micro-abrasive cleaner such as Microscrub, also, try some solvent based cleaner, you could try some clear nail varnish remover, if that removes the spot then it is telling you that a solvent based sealer stripper/remover will .

    hope that helps

    Ian

  11. Our black riven slate floor is sealed with Lithofin; we have probably applied several layers over the years. The sealant is now showing numerous white marks, some just dots, some a couple of inches long. Is the sealer reacting to moisture? We are now experimenting with removing the layers with LIthofin wax-off so we can start again. Do you have any tips to make this removal job easier/quicker please?

  12. Ian Taylor

    February 3, 2014 at 9:58 am

    Hi Jane,

    OK, it is unlikely to be a reaction with moisture or you would have had it before, but it could be just that layers are building up and maybe this has further reduced the ‘breathability’ of the floor over time, and some any moisture that was previously able to escape, may now be trapped and over time it has exerted a little pressure and created little blisters under the sealer. Or, it could simply be that there are one too many layers on and it will no longer bond – either way not a bad idea to strip back from time to time and re-do

    I think that you are using the best product – always a good thing to use the same manufacturers’ stripper. Just follow the instructions to the letter, observe recommended dwell times, these things need time to work, and if you apply it and start scrubbing straight away (as all of us humans are tempted to do) you will be making life hard for yourself; give the chemical a chance to work, strippers need time to soften the sealer, the more time you give the chemical the more it does and the less you have to do do not let it dry on the surface though.

    You may have to do it several times, it will slowly work through the layers, this is normal. Rinse well after each time. Rinse REALLY well after the last time, with fresh water, extract that dirty/contaminated water and dry the floor with an old towel (pay particular attention to any crevices in the slate, and of course the grout joints). You do not want to leave any trace of the stripper as this can reactivate when re-wetted by the application of the sealer and prevent the sealer from curing/setting properly.

    Hope this helps

    Ian

  13. Is there a simple chemical test (preferably using household chemicals) that I can use to tell the difference between a polyurethane sealer and an acrylic sealer?

    I ask because we have slate tiles that need to be stripped and cleaned and resealed, and I do’t know what kind of sealer was used last time it was done.

    Cheers
    Robert in Oz

  14. Ian Taylor

    May 4, 2014 at 10:12 pm

    Hi Robert,

    I am not sure if there is but if you can get your hands on some clear nail varnish remover (with acetone) dab some on a cotton wool pad and rub the sealer this will usually have a some effect on a typical acrylic sealer (remove or dull it). Typically polyurethane sealers are much tougher and take a strong commercial solvent to remove them.

    Hope this helps

    Ian

  15. Hi Ian,
    I’ll give it a try and let you know.
    Get back to you by the weekend.
    Many thanks!

  16. Eight years ago we had slate laid in the hallway, bathroom, kitchen, dining room and utility room. Everything was sealed but (as we have come yo deduce) the utility room. The floor is filthy and I’ve tried everything but having it retiled.
    That said I’m excited to read this approach and am anxious to give it a try. Thanks!

  17. Hi Ian,

    I see some similar posts, but decided to post my exact issue. I have a slate foyer which had some small paint spots, so I used some nail polish remover with acetone to remove them. I used a very small amount and cleaned with water right after, but the spots grew and created pretty large white stains. Water tends to make them disappear. I tested one with a little high gloss sealer but it’s still pretty visible. I have photos, but not sure where I can post them, but any advice would be appreciated.

    Thanks!

  18. Ian Taylor

    February 9, 2015 at 11:09 am

    Hi Rachel,

    OK, what you have done is used a solvent (the acetone) to thin the paint – this is exactly what paint thinners do.

    So you have partially removed the paint spots, but also in the process thinned the paint and spread it out a bit.

    In theory if you keep going – that is repeat the process maybe once or twice more, each time you will remove a little more paint.

    You could try a proprietary paint remover , put a little more on, let it work for a few moments, scrub with a mildly abrasive white nylon pad. Pick up the liquid with absorbent paper towels then rinse well with water and dry. repeat again until all traces are gone,

    Hope this helps

    Ian

  19. Thanks Ian, I will give it a try!

  20. I have a large expanse light color outdoor patio with slate tiles. I have stains from potted plants leaking dirty water. I have used a power washer on the tile in the past and it seemed to be a bad idea as the water was sloughing off layers of stone. What should I use to treat the stains? Do I then seal it?

  21. Ian Taylor

    February 25, 2015 at 4:58 pm

    Hi Beth,

    OK, a lot of slate has very loose layers art the top surface this usually settles down so no more comes off but putting it under pressure from the power washer might keep creating more separation so yes, try to avoid this if it keeps happening.

    I would try (in an inconspicuous area) a small amount of cleaner that is based on phosphoric acid or similar as this is what often gets the best results on mineral and rust type marks (often associated with stains from tubs and pots, as the minerals come from the soil). In your part of the world there are a number of manufacturers such as Aqua Mix, and Mapei USA to name just two, who make this kind of product. They also both have abrasive cream cleaners and also alkaline deep cleaners – you could try all of them (just not together)

    Once done, you could seal them this would be to help prevent future staining, a good quality impregnating sealer will do the job (those same companies have them)

    Hope this helps

    Ian

  22. hello – I have the original natural quarry slate tile floor in my Victorian house – the tiles vary in size and colour but most are somewhere between 2 foot square and 1foot x2 feet and some are as much as 4 inches thick . they are large tiles and very rustic. I love them! recently we had a small extension built and the builder ‘cleaned’ the slates and sealed them – except that I cannot get the colour back on them! they’re a mess and I’m at a loss as to what to do. I’ve hoovered them and mopped and steamed them 5 times now and still no change. it’s such a beautiful floor. the builder said to put another coat of sealant on as this may sort out the problem. any ideas?

  23. Ian Taylor

    March 19, 2015 at 12:41 pm

    Hi,

    I cannot be 100% sure without seeing them but I can make a number of assumptions:

    They are original and probably many years old. Over all that time, who knows what manner of treatment they have been subjected to but it is likely to include, many years of wear and tear (which kind of polishes them), many years of grime and dirt, any number of treatments and polishes that may have included oils and waxes and a variety of cleaning methods and products. All of which builds up a ‘patina’

    In cleaning, depending on what he used to clean them, this patina (or much of it) can be removed, and whilst it can be a good thing to do a deep thorough deep clean he has essentially removed that ‘lived-in’ patina that actually is attractive.

    In theory this will build up again, but only over an extended period of time.

    By sealing it (although you do not say what type of sealer was used) you are actually preventing dirt/grime/ polish/ wax/ oil etc from getting back onto/into the surface so it will prolong the ‘new’ cleaned look until the sealer breaks down. So, most likely, adding another coat of sealer will not help. In fact it will be doing it’s job by preventing this from happening.

    Now that the slate is sealed, what happens when you wet the floor? – presumably the sealer keeps a good deal of the water out, and prevents ‘wetting-out’ of the surface- so you do not see much change.

    If there are any areas where the sealer is not present, and the slate wets out and goes darker, this might be more to your liking.

    It follows then that you might prefer to strip off the sealer and do ‘something else’ to artificially restore the floor’s old patina. This can involve using oils like boiled linseed and or wax. Or a modern sealer that is designed to enhance the colour.

    Although even doing one of the above may not get it back to exactly the way it was, you have removed a lot of ingrained dirt (which is desirable). But it may get it to something more aesthetically pleasing than the super-cleaned and sealed (and by the sound of it, dull and lifeless) look you have now.

    Be warned though that oil and wax are not always easy to apply, and they do not last (in days gone by the floor may have been treated in this way on a regular basis until such a point that it builds up an impenetrable surface, this would have been quite a chore). A modern enhancing sealer can be easier (or at least involve much less upkeep and maintenance) but the floor would have to be uniformly and evenly stripped to ensure even application and avoid a patchy appearance).

    Hope this helps

    Ian

  24. hi ian
    Thanks for responding. The sealer used was thompsons clear water based clear silicone sealant. The tiles are from 1911.

    When the tiles are wet they look like they used to. Lovely darker colour with a little shine. When dry they are very dull and pallid in colour. There are definitely some areas where the sealant has been absorbed.

    The reason for sealing the tiles (they haven’t been sealed in the 15 years I’ve lived in the house) is because I’m due a baby very shortly and dread the thought of little tiny feet turning black in the kitchen!!!

    Thanks again for your time and energy in replying

    Andrea

  25. Ian Taylor

    March 23, 2015 at 3:24 pm

    Hi Andrea,

    OK, well that product is more of a water repellent than a stain resisting sealer, plus if the slate darkens quickly when wet then it is not really doing much resisting! – so in order for that sealer to be effective it most likely needs another coat, OR the slate is so dense that it did not take much sealer in in the first place..

    In order to achieve the all over dark look you would need either the old fashioned method of oiling the floor (not fun, practical or easy), or use an enhancing sealer but to do that you would have to strip out the existing sealer 100% – perhaps Thompsons can advise you if that is possible?

    Regarding preventing black dust coming off the slate onto baby’s feet – no impregnating sealer is really going to do that, you would need a coating and that is another system altogether and usually puts a shine/gloss on them – plus it will need regular re application

    Hope that helps

    Ian

  26. Hi Ian

    You’re a superstar for replying- thank you. I had pretty much resigned myself to oiling being the main method I might need to do!

    You mentioned about a coating? Can we DIY this or do you recommend professionals?

    Thanks once again. I’m very appreciative of your generosity.

    Andrea

  27. Ian Taylor

    March 24, 2015 at 9:21 am

    Hi Andrea,

    There are various coating sealers around but the same issue applies – you will need to strip back the current sealer first.

    A coating sealer does what it says, it coats, i.e sits on the surface and leaves a coating between the feet and the surface of the stone, so it can make the slate easier to keep clean, and because you are walking on the coating, not the slate, it will help reduce dusting (although that is not its primary function). However for it to work you need a surface that is both textured and porous – so that it can bond. the sealer you have put on will have adversely (though not entirely it seems) affected the porosity, so it will need stripping. If the texture of your slate is very smooth, then again a coating sealer may struggle for grip. Even if it does bond, you have to be prepared to top up or reapply every once in a while (anywhere from once every 6 months to once every 3 years depending on traffic and cleaning regime) but still easier than oil in my opinion.

    There are a number on the market by Lithofin, HG, LTP and others.

    Easy to apply DIY the slightly trickier part is stripping back the old sealer.

    Hope this helps

    Ian

  28. Hello,

    I was wondering if you could help me please. I have mosaic slate tiles in the kitchen of my rental flat and the previouse tenats have not wiped them well after cooking. The whole area behind the hob is darkened with grease. Is there anything that you could suggest I do to bring them back to their former glory?

    Many thanks, Susanne

  29. Ian Taylor

    June 21, 2016 at 1:24 pm

    Hi, Susanne,

    Slate is pretty impervious and will really only be holding the grease at the surface, if it has also been sealed then even more so. The grease just clings really well as it will also to the grouting. I would try a high pH degreaser – there are several on the market including one that I manufacture under the All for tone range here in the UK. Follow the instructions and rinse well after and you should be able to remove most if not all of the grease.

    if you search for this string on Amazon ( I cannot put live links in here it affects the site ranking) you should find it

    Hope this helps
    Ian
    Heavy-Cleaner-Xtreme-Stone-1Litre/dp/B0073EEI0E

  30. Hi Ian,

    Thanks for all this helpful info above.
    I have a very specific question about a wet room floor. It’s a rough Brazilian slate, laid 10 years ago and sealed with lithofin. There’s a low temperature underfloor heating system in the screed below.
    Here’s the horrible thing: even though the floor is cleaned regularly, for the last few months there is a nasty smell after the shower has been used! It’s not the drain. We’ve tried steam cleaning and using biological detergent (rather than our usual gentle floor wash) but to no avail. Do you think the slate, or maybe the grout has become porous to bacteria?
    Would be so grateful for your input.

  31. Ian Taylor

    June 13, 2017 at 9:02 am

    Hi Connie,

    OK, well really that could be coming from anywhere – you are going to have to be like a doctor and go through a number of scenarios. First of all, are you 100% it is not the drain? Just disinfecting the shower outlet may be giving you false info. The shower trap may be clean, but there may be an issue futher down the line, maybe there is a leak in the trap, thus allowing air to transport smells up from the drainaige system – you only get the smell when you use the shower? The shower water disturbing things and causing the smells to come back up? I doubt the tile surface is holding bacteria and even if it or the grout is, it would most likley be present all the time and I doubt it would smell like a drain.

    One other possibility is that if there was some break inn the seal (I mean the silicone seal between the walls and the floor) allowinng water to get in and under the slate tiles, and if there are somme voids in there or the slate has moved, come away from the subfloor in places then this could be a source of the bad smell, dark, dank crevices beneath tiles holding water that is stagnant, gently incubated by the UFH, then this could be a like a giant petrie dish allowing he bacteria to flourish. Then when you turn on the shower it gets flushed and the smells come up. Hard to check for this unless you can tap around to listen for any signs of delamination, sometimes by pressing on the tiles it can cause water to ouse up thus revealing where the loose tiles are and where the water is getting in. If this is the case then you would have to carefully lift any loose ones, prepare the bed (remove adhesive) and allow it to thoroughly dry out before replacing the slate and regrouting and sealing.

    Hope this is of some help
    Ian

  32. Rebekah Meredith

    August 5, 2017 at 1:56 pm

    Hello Ian,
    We have had a new slate floor laid in a new build, it has not yet been sealed. It is grey but sadly there is a lot of builder’s dust/ impregnanted white dust and now (after mopping) this is more like cement in the fine surface ridges etc of the new slate. I am struggling to clean this. All my washing and scrubbing tends to leave the slate cloudy, there are areas of more pitted whiteness into the surface which will not brush out dry or wash out wet. Should I get a professional to use a large scrubber machine… I want to get this slate clean again before sealing.
    I realise we should have covered it whilst builders finishing their work, but too late now. your advice would be greatly appreciated,

  33. Ian Taylor

    August 7, 2017 at 10:56 am

    Hi Rebekah,

    Ok sounds like ‘normal’ builders film – dust from plaster etc, but also more than likely there will be some grout haze/residue that you have not noticed until you came to clean it. It is very rare for a new slate floor to be left absolutely free of cement haze, especially in the pits and crevices.

    It is typical to need an acid based clean after this – there are some cautions though: 1) Use only a safe acid cleaner, designed for the job, NOT a brick acid 2) make sure the grout is at least 3 days to a week old before acid cleaning – you should be ok here I think) 3) ANY acid wash creates the likelihood of lightening/etching the grout joint itself – with a natural grey grout this is less of an issue, it just goes a little lighter – (for a while) but if you have a darker grout, one that was pigmented then it can bleach out some of the colour. 4) You have to use them correctly – following the below procedure:

    1) Pre wet the surface
    2) Dilute the acid based cleaner appropriately – the weaker you can get away with the better – do not think stronger = better/faster
    3) Apply, leave to dwell for a few minutes BUT – NO NOT ALLOW to dry out
    4) Agitate/scrub with nylon scrub brush and or white nylon emulsifying pads (on occasion more coarse pads could be used (red, blue, green even black) but test they do not scratch the slate first
    5) Pick up the dirty solution BEFORE it has a chance to dry on the surface – hiring a small wet vac makes this really easy but can be done with a good mop an bucket
    6) RINSE WELL – this is not the same as #5 – this means after # 5, add clean, fresh water to the floor – lightly scrub again with a pad or a nylon brush ( standing with a nylon bristled broom is fine for this) – a light agitation of the rinsing water on the surface of the stone followed by
    7) pick up the rinse water – again a wet vac makes this easy – DO NOT SKIP THIS STEP
    8) – buff the floor dry with an old terry towel
    9) Allow the floor to dry out fully, that means until the grout joints go back to their dry/ lighter colour (and they may be even lighter now), this is because any cement stains still there will also dry ‘white’ and be more noticeable than when the floor is wet. Hopefully the above procedure has removed all or most of the issues but if not, repeat the entire process.

    #’s 6, 7 and 8 are so important as they help make sure there are no traces of acid cleaner and any remaining dirt residue left as when the floor dries out these will show up as white marks again.

    All of the above is not rocket science, I a sure you ca do it, hiring a wet vac, and if you can a rotary scrubbing machine with a nylon brush head or pads would also help.

    You can also get a professional in, as long as they follow the above – but that will cost a lot more of course.

    One other issue you may have is if the cement involved was heavily polymer modified then this can impact on the effectiveness of an acid cleaner – so you might want to do a test first.

    if you want some suggestions on a particular product, you could message me directly via the contact us part of the blog.

    Hope this helps

    Ian

    A scrubbing ma

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